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Optional Materials


Appendixes may be used to provide additional information to your readers that cannot be incorporated into the structure of your discussion. Appendixes are typically used to present unpublished tests or to describe complex apparatus or stimulus materials.

Type appendixes on a separate page, with the label "Appendix" and the identifying letter (A, B, C, etc) centered at the top of the page. If you have only one appendix, do not include a letter. The text in the appendix should follow the formatting rules for the body of your paper -- that is, double spaced, with the first lines of paragraphs indented five spaces.

Author Note

An Author Note is sometimes included with manuscripts, to:
  • Identify grants and other sources of financial support for the study;
  • Put forward any disclaimers about perceived or possible conflicts of interest.
  • Acknowledge contributions from colleagues or previous studies
  • Provide readers with specific contact and affiliation information (during the time of the study and currently, if these are different) for the author(s).

Author Notes are not required for most course work research papers and dissertations.

See pages 203-205 in The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for detailed instructions on preparing an Author Note.


It is often necessary to include tables in your paper to present quantitative data or the results of statistical analyses.

Label tables with the word "Table" and an arabic numeral (e.g., 1, 2, 3). Tables should be numbered according to the order in which they are mentioned in the paper. All column heads and subhead should be lower case and centered. Allow at least three spaces between columns.

Notes at the end of the table should be double spaced and flush left.

For more details on table formatting for APA style papers, see page 301 of The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Figures and Figure Captions Page
A common use of Figures is to present graphs, photographs, or other illustrations (other than tables). The Figure Captions page provides a list of captions for the figures that follow.

Each figure included must have a caption that includes the figure number:

Figure 1. Floor plan of the testing area.
All figures should include (a) the manuscript page header and (b) the figure number, outside the image area.

If necessary, figures should include an indication of proper viewing orientation (e.g., "TOP"), if this is not readily apparent.

For more details on incorporating figures into your research paper, see page 302 of The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Content footnotes are occasionally used to support information in the text.

Type footnotes on a separate page, with the title "Footnotes" centered at the top of the page. Footnotes should have the first line indented five spaces.

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